First to write a work of science fiction
First to measure the distance to the stars using stellar parallax
First to coin the common word “Satellite”
First to suggest that the Sun rotates about its axis
First to explain that the tides are caused by the Earth’s Moon
First to derive the birth year of Christ, which is now universally accepted
First to correctly explain planetary motion, becoming founder of celestial mechanics
First to explain that all bodies to come together, with a force proportionate to their mass
First to correctly explain the first “natural laws”, which are universal, verifiable and precise
First to realize that the darkness of the night sky directly conflicts with the idea of an infinite universe filled with stars
First to formulate eyeglass designing for nearsightedness and farsightedness
First to describe: real, virtual, upright and inverted images and magnification
First to discover and describe the properties of total internal reflection
First to explain the process of vision by refraction within the eye
First to derive logarithms based on mathematics
First to explain how a telescope works